Architecture

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Westminster Hall interior the North wall. Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Stained glass window that is a modern addition.Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Detail of three medieval kings on the south wall. They were installed by Richard II in 1385.Westminster Hall, London. photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Set of stairs. This was originally a fireplace. Westminster Hall, London.Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Close up of the North wall.Westminster Hall, London. photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Westminster Hall interior facing the South wall.Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Statues of Medieval kings along the East wall.Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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East wall.Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Westminster interior facing South wall.Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Exterior of Westminster Hall. Compare the architecture to the newer bell tower (incorrectly called Big Ben) in the background.Westminster Hall, London. photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Exterior of Westminster Hall with the newer House of Parliament at the back. You can see the difference between the Norman architecture of the Hall and the Noe-Gothic architecture of the House of Parliament.Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The White Tower, this is what most people think of when they think of the Tower of London. Tower of London, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The Traitor’s gate. This gate was originally accessed from the river and was the main way prisoners were brought to the tower. Tower of London, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The Jewel Tower. This was originally part of Westminster Palace. Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Leicester Cathedral, Leicester. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Ceiling detail, Jewel Tower. Westminster Hall, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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West face of Westminster Abbey. This is the front entrance into the church. The detailed architecture is highly representative of Gothic architecture from the 13th century. Westminster Abbey, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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North face of the abbey On the right side you can see a flying buttress, an arch designed to help hold up the buildings walls. Westminster Abbey, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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North face of the abbey showing much of the length of the nave. Westminster Abbey, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The west face of the abbey with its twin bell towers. Westminster Abbey, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The north face with better views of the flying buttresses supporting the sides of the abbey all along the nave. Westminster Abbey, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The east face of the abbey where the alter is located. Gothic architecture allowed for more windows to be placed in the walls giving more light to the interior of buildings such as the abbey. Westminster Abbey, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Wakefield tower, this tower and next door Bloody tower were prisoners would be tortured in hopes of getting a confession. Torture even back in the medieval period was seen as illegal and as a poor way to get answers but that did not stop it from being used on commoners who were sent to the tower in hopes of a quick resolution. The Tower of London, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The outer walls of the tower which were built in the 14th century under Edward I. The Tower of London, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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The Byward tower, which serves as the gatehouse. It is on the site of the Lion Tower which was the gatehouse and barbarian built by Edward I and got its name from the royal menagerie. The Tower of London, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Panorama of the entire tower complex. The White tower the innermost building can be seen in the just poking up above the two curtain walls. The Tower of London, London. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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Two half-timber buildings in Historic Bayonne. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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A building in Historic Bayonne. Note the stained glass windows and half timber construction. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.

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A street in Historic Bayonne. Note the narrow street and buildings. Photo courtesy of M. O’Neil.


Researching Architectural History Through Archaeology: The Case of Westminster Abbey

Lecture by Warwick Rodwell

Given at the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, on November 4, 2013

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